16   Glossary



3HM
3-hydroxymorphinan, a metabolite of DXM.

 

3MM
3-methoxymorphinan, a metabolite of DXM.

 

AMPA
A subtype of ion channel excitatory amino acid receptors.

 

APAP
Acetaminophen / paracetamol.

 

Agent Lemon
A process for extracting DXM from syrups into DXM citrate; also the DXM citrate extraction.

 

CEV
Closed-eye visuals.

 

CNS
Central nervous system.

 

CYA
Cover Your Ass.

 

CYP
Cytochrome P450.

 

DEA
Drug Enforcement Agency.

 

DTG
A sigma/NMDA ligand used in research.

 

DXM
Dextromethorphan.

 

DXO
Dextrorphan.

 

DZ
Dizocilpine (q.v.).

 

EAA
Excitatory Amino Acid.

 

FAQ
Frequently Asked Question(s); also refers to a document answering those questions.

 

GABA
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, a neuroreceptor type and neurotransmitter.

 

GHB
Gamma-Hydroxy Butyrate.

 

IM
Intramuscular.

 

IP
Intraperitoneal.

 

IUPAC
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

 

IV
Intravenous.

 

LD50
Lethal dose for 50% of a given population (usually lab rats).

 

LTP
Long-Term Potentiation (of synaptic weight).

 

Lilliputian hallucinations
Sensations or hallucinations of mistaken size, where objects are either too large or too small, or both; occurs on dissociatives, during temporal lobe seizures, and high fever.

 

MAOI
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor. A drug which inhibits the enzyme MAO.

 

MDMA
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy).

 

MK801
Dizocilpine (q.v.).

 

NAN
NMDA Antagonist Neurotoxicity, i.e., neurotoxicity caused by blockade of NMDA receptors.

 

NH4OH
Ammonium hydroxide.

 

NMDA
N-methyl-D-aspartate, a type of excitatory amino acid receptor.

 

NRH
NMDA Receptor Hypofunction, another term for NAN.

 

NT
Neurotransmitter.

 

NaOH
Sodium hydroxide (lye).

 

OEV
Open-eye visuals.

 

OTC
Over the Counter, i.e., a drug available without prescription on drugstore shelves.

 

P450
Cytochrome P450, an enzyme family.

 

PC
Posterior Cingulate.

 

PCP
1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine, phencyclidine; a widely available illegal dissociative.

 

PGP
Pretty Good Privacy, an encryption scheme.

 

PPA
phenylpropanolamine, a decongestant.

 

PPP
A sigma/NMDA ligand used in research.

 

RC
Retrosplenial Cortex.

 

SWAG
Scientific Wild-Assed Guess.

 

TCP
A sigma/NMDA ligand used in research.

 

THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana.

 

Usenet
A "virtual network" of computers in which articles (documents) posted in a given newsgroup are propagated to all other computers.

 

VGAC
Voltage-gated anion channel.

 

VGCC
Voltage-gated cation channel.

 

VGIC
Voltage-gated ion channel.

 

WoD
War on Drugs.

 

YMMV
Your mileage may vary (i.e., your experiences may be different from those listed).

 

acetaminophen
APAP, paracetamol; an over-the-counter painkiller which is toxic in high doses.

 

acid-base extraction
A process for extracting desired chemicals (usually alkaloids) from unwanted impurities through the use of acids and bases to change the solubility of the desired chemicals in polar and nonpolar solvents (e.g., water and naptha).

 

agonist
Activator; an agonist at a given neuroreceptor activates that receptor.

 

alkaline
Having a pH above 7; basic. Lye and baking soda are both alkaline.

 

ammonia
Technically NH3, a gas, but "household ammonia" is actually ammonium hydroxide (q.v.).

 

ammonium hydroxide
NH4OH; a basic solution of ammonia gas in water.

 

amotivational syndrome
A syndrome characterized by lack of motivation, apathy, lethargy, etc., and which may be linked to use of marijuana or other drugs (this is highly debatable).

 

amphetamine
Speed (though this usually refers to methamphetamine, q.v.). A potent stimulant used recreationally which is illegal in most countries.

 

analgesic
A substance which relieves pain.

 

angeldustin
Endopsychosin (q.v.).

 

antagonist
Blocker; an antagonist at a given receptor blocks or lowers the activity of that receptor.

 

antihistamine
A drug which blocks histamine, typically used to treat allergic reactions.

 

aspartate
An excitatory amino acid.

 

basic
Having a pH above 7; opposite of acidic.

 

binding
site A location (on a receptor or other structure) where a given chemical attatches itself.

 

biogenic amine
A family of neurotransmitters (consisting of serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, dopamine, and noradrenaline).

 

blockade
Blockage of.

 

bupropion
An atypical antidepressant which blocks the reuptake of dopamine.

 

chlorpheniramine
An antihistamine.

 

competitive antagonist
An antagonist that works by competing with the neurotransmitter for the same binding site.

 

cross-tolerance
A phenomenon in which tolerance to one drug induces tolerance to another; LSD and psilocybe mushrooms show cross-tolerance.

 

cytochrome
A type of enzyme.

 

decongestant
A drug which relieves congestion.

 

demethylation
Removal of a methyl group.

 

dextromethorphan
The subject of this text; a cough suppressant and dissociative.

 

diphenhydramine
An antihistamine.

 

dissociation
As used in this text, refers to a condition by which certain mental functions are dissociated or "separated" from others, to varying degree; in particular refers to the dissociation of sensory input and emotion from consciousness and memory.

 

dissociative
A sigma/NMDA ligand drug which induces dissociation; derives from "dissociative anaesthetic" (q.v.).

 

dissociative anaesthetic
A drug which induces anaesthesia via dissociation of the conscious mind from sensory input.

 

dizocilpine
MK801, DZ; a dissociative.

 

downregulation
A process in which the number or activity of receptors decreases, typically in response to abnormally high activity (e.g., from a drug).

 

dysphoria
The opposite of euphoria; a feeling of emotional or mental discomfort.

 

ego annihilation
The loss of sense of self-awareness and/or self-identity that occurs on many psychedelics.

 

eidetic imagery
As used in this text, refers to abnormally vivid, often fully realistic, imagination.

 

endopsychosin
A proposed endogenous (produced by the body) neurotransmitter or ligand for the sigma and NMDA open channel sites. The body's own PCP.

 

enzyme
A chemical produced within the body which degrades or changes substances or increases the rate of a given reaction.

 

ethnobotanical
A plant used by humans; often refers to a drug plant.

 

excitotoxic rebound
A process by which removal of a drug which suppresses neural activity causes a "rebound" during which too much neural activity occurs; during this rebound, neurons can suffer damage or die.

 

excitotoxicity
Toxicity to nerve cells and processes resulting from too much activity.

 

expectorant
A drug which increases production of, and thins, the phlegm (mucus) production.

 

finger
An Internet protocol which allows one to check a user's login information.

 

flanging
As used in this text, a phenomenon of sensory perception in which sensory data seems to be split up into obvious "frames", often with an echo effect. Nitrous oxide is well known for auditory flanging.

 

free base
The "free" base form of an alkaloid, i.e., not paired with an acid molecule. The free base (or freebase) form of an alkaloid can usually be vaporized and inhaled (this is called "freebasing" the drug).

 

full agonist
An agonist which fully activates a given receptor.

 

gelcap
A capsule formed of a gel material, sometimes gelatin but commonly a synthetic polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer.

 

glutamate
An excitatory amino acid; also a term for an excitatory amino acid receptor.

 

guaifenesin
An expectorant.

 

haloperidol
An antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia which also has sigma activity.

 

harmaline
A plant-derived MAOI.

 

harmine
A plant-derived MAOI.

 

hippocampus
A seahorse-shaped formation in the limbic system which is involved in the storage of memory for intermediate periods and the consolidation of those memories into permanent form.

 

histamine
A neurotransmitter (in the brain; in the body, histamine initiates an allergic reaction).

 

hypoxia
Lack of oxygen.

 

ion channel
A structure which lets ions enter or leave a cell; ion channels are sometimes paired with neuroreceptors which open or close the channel depending on the presence of a neurotransmitter.

 

ionotropic receptor
An ion channel receptor.

 

irreversible antagonist
An antagonist which binds permanently with a receptor, effectively destroying it.

 

ischemia
Cutoff of blood (typically due to artery blockage or damage).

 

ketamine
A dissociative anaesthetic used in animals, children, and burn victims; also used recreationally.

 

ligand
A chemical which binds somewhere; e.g., a "sigma ligand" is a drug which binds to sigma receptors somewhere. Ligands can be agonists or antagonists (or neither).

 

lye
Sodium hydroxide.

 

meclizine
An anticholinergic (i.e., drug which blocks acetylcholine receptors) used to prevent or treat nausea.

 

metabolism
Transformation of a chemical by the body; metabolism of a drug usually results in a form which can be more easily excreted.

 

metabolite
A product of metabolism (transformation by the body) of another drug.

 

metabotropic receptor
A receptor where activation leads to some change in metabolic processes within the cell, rather than opening or closing of an ion channel (c.f. ionotropic receptor).

 

methamphetamine
Speed, crank, crystal, etc., a potent and (in most countries) illegal stimulant.

 

microsome
Refers to one of several membrane-containing structures within a cell; there isn't one structure which is the "microsome", as the term refers to a fraction found after centrifuging a cell sample.

 

nM
Nanomoles (or nanomolar); a measure of concentration.

 

naloxone
An opiate receptor antagonist used to treate opiate overdoses.

 

naptha
A low boiling nonpolar fraction derived from petroleum distillation; typically includes pentane, hexane, heptane, and derivatives thereof.

 

neuropeptide
A peptide (short chain of amino acids) neurotransmitter.

 

neurotoxic
Toxic to neurons or neural processes.

 

noncompetitive antagonist
An antagonist at a given receptor which doesn't bind to the same site as the neurotransmitter (c.f., competitive antagonist).

 

nootropic
Capable of enhancing mental function. "Smart drug".

 

noscapine
A cough suppressant derived from opium.

 

pH
An indication of the acidity of alkalinity of a substance.

 

paracetamol
Acetaminopen (q.v.).

 

partial agonist
An agonist which partially activates a given receptor; may behave as an antagonist in the presence of enough neurotransmitter.

 

pentazocine
An opiate with strong sigma agonist properties.

 

perforant path
One of the neural pathways in limbic system which carries hippocampal signals.

 

pharmacokinetic
Refering to the metabolism of a given drug.

 

pharmacological
Refering to the action (including the neuroreceptor binding) of a given drug.

 

phencyclidine
PCP; an illegal dissociative commonly available ("angel dust", "greens", "hog", etc.).

 

phenyleprine
A decongestant typically found only with antihistamines.

 

phenylpropanolamine
A decongestant and appetite suppressant.

 

phosphene
A light or pattern which appears in the field of vision with eyes closed (and occasionally open). Phosphenes seem to come from the back of the eyelids, but are actually a result of slight but harmless abnormalities in retinal and visual processing networks.

 

photophobia
Literally "fear of light"; refers to discomfort from too much light.

 

plateau
As used in the FAQ, refers to a given dosage range of DXM in which the strength of the effects change but the character of the effects do not.

 

polistirex
A time-release polymer compound.

 

polyamine
A chemical with more than one amine group; the polyamine site on the NMDA receptor will bind with several polyamines.

 

polymorphism
Having multiple forms. Genetic polymorphism of an enzyme (such as P450) means that there are genetically based differences in forms of that receptor.

 

posterior cingulate
The posterior (rear) region of the cingulate cortex, a distinct part of the cerebral cortex located in the temporal lobe.

 

pseudoephedrine
A decongestant.

 

psychedelic
A drug eliciting or producing altered states of consciousness, mind, and/or perception.

 

psychoactive
Having effects on the mind.

 

psychonaut
Someone who explores consciousness, the mind, and "inner space" through the use of meditation, drugs, sensory deprivation, and other methods.

 

psychotomimetic
Literally, "psychosis mimicking". The "approved" medical term for any drug which has psychedelic effects (although not necessarily pleasant ones).

 

receptor
A structure on or inside a cell which receives a chemical signal.

 

reregulation
A process in which the number or activity of receptors changes, typically in response to an abnormally high or low level of activity at that receptor. c.f., upregulation, downregulation.

 

retrosplenial cortex
A section of the temporal cortex which is involved in limbic pathways and may be damaged by high doses of dissociatives.

 

reuptake
The process by which used neurotransmitters are taken back into cells to be recycled or destroyed.

 

self-titration
Adjusting the dosage of a drug onesself to achieve a given effect. Cigarette smokers quickly become adept at self-titrating nicotine levels to maintain a particular level of nicotine in the blood and brain.

 

sensorium
One's sensory environment.

 

sodium hydroxide
NaOH, lye. A base.

 

spontaneous memory
The sudden and unexpected recall of a memory episode.

 

spoonerism
Swapping the first letter or syllable of adjacent or near-adjacent words, often resulting in equally valid words, e.g., "I made a spoonerism" to "I spade a moonerism".

 

sympathetic
Referring to the subset of the peripheral nervous system activated in "fight or flight" behaviours.

 

sympathomimetic
Mimicking or potentiating sympathetic nervous system activity.

 

synesthesia
Perceiving sensory data of one sense with another, e.g., seeing sounds or hearing colors.

 

tachycardia
Fast heart rate.

 

tartrazine
A dye commonly found in some cough syrups; some people are allergic to tartrazine.

 

tetrodotoxin
An ion channel blocker; also the active ingredient in "zombie potion".

 

tryptophan
An amino acid and the precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

 

tyrosine
An amino acid and the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline.

 

upregulation
A process in which the number or activity of receptors increases, typically in response to abnormally low activity (e.g., from an antagonist drug).

 

vasoconstriction
Constriction of blood vessels.

 

vasopressin
A neuropeptide which has peripheral effects on blood vessels and kidney action, and which may also be a nootropic.

 

vestibular
Refers to signals from the middle ear; vestibular sensations include floating, low-frequency vibrating, and similar sensations.